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Sewer networks - Pollutant loads

  • Transport of pollutant loads
  • Balancing of element fluxes, e.g. N, P, C balances
  • Simulation of biogeochemical reaction networks (reactive-transport modeling)
  • Tracking of point-sources of water pollution
  • pH modeling

In ++SYSTEMS, arbitrary dissolved chemical species and suspended solids can be defined and transported through the system. This means, the models are not limited to, e.g. Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Ammonia (NH3), Total Nitrogen (TN), or Total Phosphorus (TP) – but can be appended by any chemical species of interest. At each point in space and in time, concentrations, total loads, as well as the resulting pH can be calculated. This allows for an identification of UID's (unsatisfactory intermittent discharges) in calculated intermittent discharges from sewerage systems. Also, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) can be calculated, as required for certain US utilities and dischargers for obtaining National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.

Additionally, short-term loads as well as total yearly emissions from sewer systems into each receiving water course can be calculated, thus allowing for not only network-centered, emission-oriented planning, but also for water-course specific immission-oriented planning.

All substances can not only be transported through the system, but can also be modeled in a reactive-transport fashion: kinetic expressions realizing the decay/consumption or the production of substances can be specified. By defining suitable source and sink terms for chemical species according to reaction stoichiometry, complex biogeochemical reaction networks can be incorporated into the models.

Pollutant loads